Examine ethnographic material from different settings around the world and discuss how the cultural patterning of gender and sexuality allows (or doesn’t) space for a ‘3rd gender’.

Examine ethnographic material from different settings around the world and discuss how the
cultural patterning of gender and sexuality allows (or doesn’t) space for a ‘3rd gender’. Using at
least three examples that describe local examples of the 3rd sex/gender consider how alternative
sex/gender identities link with other major structuring forces (such as religion or class) in their
respective societies? How and why does the destabilisation of binary sex/gender categories
increase infectious disease vulnerability for these individuals?

Readings:
Ramet, S., P. (ed) 1996. Gender Reversals and Gender Cultures. London: Routledge. (many chapters)
Herdt, G. (ed) 1994. Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History.
New York: Zone Books. (many chapters)
Baral, S. Poteat, T. Strömdahl, S. Wirtz, A. Guadamuz, T. Beyrer C. 2013 ‘Worldwide burden of HIV
in transgender women: a systematic review and meta-analysis’ Lancet Vol 13 March
AMFAR 2014 Trans Populations and HIV: Time to End the Neglect (on ilearn)
Suwat Chariyalertsak, Natthapol Kosachunhanan, Pongpun Saokhieo, et al C 2011. HIV Incidence,
Risk Factors, and Motivation for Biomedical Intervention among Gay, Bisexual Men, and
Transgender Persons in Northern Thailand PLoS 6(9)
Campuzano, Giuseppe (2006) ‘Reclaiming Travesti Histories’, IDS Bulletin ‘Sexuality Matters’ 37(5)
October.
Aniruddha Dutta (2013) Legible Identities and Legitimate Citizens, International Feminist Journal of
Politics, 15:4, 494-514,
Kulick, Don 1998 Travesti: Sex, Gender and Culture among Transgendered Prostitutes. University Of
Chicago Press
Morineau. G et al. 2004 When You Fall in Love You Have to Pay for it. (on ilearn)
Dowsett, G. W. (2003). “Some considerations on sexuality and gender in the context of AIDS.”
Reproductive Health Matters 11(22): 21-29.
Gosine, A. (2005). “Stumbling Into Sexualities: International Development Encounters Dissident
Desire.” Canadian Woman Studies 24(2/3): 59.
Gruskin, S. and et al. (2004). “Special focus: Sexuality, human rights, and health.” Health and human
rights 7(2): 1. xx
Parker, R. and C. Caceres (1999). “Alternative Sexualities and Changing Sexual Cultures among Latin
American Men.” Culture, Health & Sexuality 1(3): 201
Lyttleton, C. 2008 Mekong Erotics: Men Loving/Pleasuring/Using Men in Lao PDR. UNESCO (on
ilearn)
Tan, Michael. 1995. ‘From Bakla to Gay: Shifting gender identities and sexual bahviours in the
Phillippines’, in Gagnon J. and Parker R. (eds) Conceiving Sexuality. Routledge
Parker R. 1999. Beneath the Equator Routledge
Rory Gallagher 2005 ‘Shifting markets, shifting risks: HIV/AIDS prevention and the geographies of
male and transgender tourist-orientated sex work in Phuket, Thailand’ pdf at
http://bangkok2005.anu.edu.au/papers/Gallagher.pdf
Jackson, P and Sullivan, G. Lady Boys, Tomboys Rent Boys: Male and Female Sexualities in
Contemporary Thailand. Silkworm Press.
Shore, B. 1981. ‘ Sexuality and gender in Samoa’, in Ortner, S. and Whitehead, H. (eds) Sexual
Meanings Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
James, K. 1994. ‘Effeminate Males and Changes in the Construction of Gender”, Pacific Studies
17(2): 39-70

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