Finаnсе & Тахаtiоn

Q1) for each of the three pillars of sustainable development (i.e., economic growth, social well-being and protecting the natural resource base and the environment), can you explain how taxation may play a role and provide examples?
Q2) Tax optimization strategies implemented by certain multinational corporations (Amazon, Google, Apple, Facebook, Starbucks, etc.) to reduce their tax liability have given rise to a lot of press coverage recently and a number of countries have agreed in October 2015 to a global initiative to limit those strategies (the “BEPS” initiative concerning “transfer pricing” rules, fighting “non-cooperative” low tax jurisdiction, etc.). Can you analyze the connection between international tax avoidance and sustainable development, both globally and more specifically with respect to developing countries?
Q3) Explain what is an international tax treaty, what is the role of tax treaties and how international tax treatise may have an impact on sustainable development, specifically for developing countries (e.e., differences between the OECD and the UN Model tax treaties) ?
Q4) Can you describe the principle of an “Emission Trading System”, explain how it is supposed to achieve the objectives of environmental protection and describe the pros and cons of such a system?
Q5) According to a press release, in early December 2015, “Gulf states have agreed on key issues for implementing value-added tax in the region, an official from the United Arab Emirates finance ministry said”. Could you briefly describe the main characteristics of a VAT system and comment on the main advantages and drawbacks of this tax from an economic/social/environmental perspective?
Q6) if you were asked to propose new taxes for the UAE (other than VAT) with a positive impact on the environment and/or social well-being, which taxes would you suggest and why?

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