HRM perspective, what are the key similarities and differences between a cross-border merger/acquisition and an international joint venture

From an HRM perspective, what are the key similarities and differences between a cross-border merger/acquisition and an international joint venture?
Consider including definitions of M&As and IJVs in order to make your comparison. Your text should also explore at what stage HR (should) be involved in the M&A or IJV process, and what the main HRM activities during each of these stages are. Explain the critical challenges that HR faces in each of the two international collaboration scenarios.
You should substantiate your arguments by making reference to the readings assigned for this lesson. This means that you need to identify in your text when you are making a point that you heave learned directly from the reading, stating the citation for that point (e.g. Thomas & Lazarova, 2014: page 30).

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