Intrоduсtiоn tо kinеtiсs аnd dynаmiсs аnd bаsiс рhаrmасоlоgy
Refer to Galbraith or Bullock et al, (either 6th or 7th edition) AND any other pharmacology text/source available to you, and answer the following questions individually (this is not an essay).
- The maximum word count should be no more than 4500 words. There is no minimum word count for the assignment however, be sure to answer the questions in sufficient detail.
- If you think it appropriate, include a diagram/table or chart.
- Your answers should be TYPED under the questions on this document.
- In-text and end-text references must be included – 5 marks are allocated for the referencing (the references are not included in the word count). It is anticipated that you will use around 10 references for this assignment. No “blog or dot.com” references will be accepted.
- Type your answers under the questions provided.
- DO NOT include a contents or index page.
- Font size should be 12pt
- Complete all questions in PART A, B, C & D.
- Total of 115 marks + 5 marks for referencing = 120 marks.
- Email a word document (doc or docx) assignment to firstname.lastname@example.org
- Do not use any other form of electronic submission for this assignment
Assignment one: Total marks converted to 20% of the unit weighting.
Do not use any other form of electronic submission for this assignment.
PART A (Total 45 marks)
(each question is worth 5 marks)
- Define the terms ‘pharmacokinetics’ and ‘pharmacodynamics’. Include in your answer an example of at least one drug.
- What is meant by ‘plasma protein binding’? In your answer, explain the effects that plasma protein binding has on the metabolism and elimination of protein bound drugs.
- Why should aspirin not normally be administered to a patient who is taking a course of the anticoagulant drug, warfarin?
- Explain the ‘hepatic first pass effect’. Why is it important to consider this effect when administering drugs orally?
- Morphine, a narcotic analgesic, has a half-life of about 2 –3 hours. The half-life of naloxone (Narcan), the “antidote” for narcotic overdose, is approximately 1 hour. What does the term ‘half-life’ mean, and what implications does this information have for the prescribers of these drugs?
- What is meant by ‘steady state’ concentrations of a drug? Explain how and when a steady state is achieved.
- Describe the characteristics and properties of enzymes. What is the difference between competitive and non-competitive enzyme inhibition? Give one example for each.
- What happens when a drug acts as an ‘antagonist’? Explain how atropine, an anticholinergic, acts as an antagonist at cholinergic receptors. What are the effects of atropine on the human body?
- Describe the drug interactions which may occur when the following drugs and/or other substances are administered concurrently:
- phenelzine and broad beans or cheddar cheese
- tetracyclines and antacids
- alcohol and diazepam
PART B (Total 20 marks)
The treatment of pain and inflammation is a cornerstone of pharmacology research.
- Describe the actions and possible adverse effects of two analgesic, one narcotic and one non-narcotic and a (different) anti-inflammatory drug (10 marks).
- Provide examples of conditions/diseases that each drug could be used for and explain why they are effective for the treatment of that condition (10 marks).
PART C (Total 35 marks)
Chapter 55, page 694 – Fundamentals of Pharmacology (7th Edition)
BB, a 5-year-old boy with a history of chronic asthma, has been admitted to hospital suffering a moderately severe asthma attack. Over a period of time his condition has been well managed using daily inhalation of the corticosteroid beclomethasone, coupled with inhalation of the Beta2 agonist salbutamol when required. His parents think that this particular attack was brought on by a mild respiratory infection that has been affecting the other members of the family.
Treatment begins with oxygen therapy and a dose of the Beta2 agonist salbutamol via an inhaler and spacer. A dose of hydrocortisone is administered intramuscularly soon after. Inhaler treatment is repeated hourly. After eight hours the acute attack is easing and by 12 hours post admission BB is ready for discharge.
- Briefly outline the long-term aims of asthma management, the first-line therapy and the preferred treatment of an acute attach according to the National Asthma Campaign. (7 marks)
- Explain why the mild respiratory infection would be considered a trigger for BB’s asthma attack. (3 marks)
- What is the rationale for the use of inhaled corticosteroids in the long-term management of BB’s chronic asthma? (3 marks)
- What short-term adverse effects would you expect to see with inhaled corticosteroids? (2 marks)
- What short-term adverse effects would you expect to see associated with inhaled B2 agonists? (5 marks)
- What problem may be associated with the long-term use of inhaled corticosteroid therapy in young children? (4 marks)
- Why has the health team managing BB’s acute attack used an inhaler and spacer to administer the bronchodilator therapy rather than a nebuliser? (2 marks)
- How does the systemic administration of the corticosteroid hydrocortisone assist in the recovery after an acute asthma attack? (4 marks)
- What aspects of your client’s condition would you monitor during this combined therapy? Why? (5 marks)
PART D – (Total 15 marks)
Eva Bernstein, aged 58, comments how relieved she is now that her doctor has started her on the thiazide hydrochlorothiazide as part of her antihypertensive therapy. “Now I won’t have to worry about having food without salt. The water tablet will take care of it,” she explains. What would be your response to her? What other lifestyle issues will you explore with Ms Bernstein?
END OF ASSIGNMENT