Liver failure

SCMED2011 Pathophysiology 2 Assignment 1 Topic: Liver failure Focus: Liver failure, caused by such things such as hepatitis and cirrhosis, leads to an array of symptoms including cardiorespiratory insufficiency (hepatopulmonary syndrome; HPS) and renal failure (hepatorenal syndrome; HRS). Disregarding the cause of the liver failure itself, discuss the development of both of these symptoms. Topics to be covered: Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) 1. What are the 3 major components of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS)? 2. What is vasodilation and how does it work? What are the indicated vasodilators in HPS and where do they come from? 3. What is the normal role of the liver as far as vasodilators in circulation are concerned and why does liver failure lead to pulmonary vasodilation in HPS? 4. What is ventilation/perfusion mismatch? What is an arteriovenous shunt in this context? Why does it cause dyspnea in HPS? Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) 1. What is hepatic portal hypertension and what is the splanchnic circulation? Why might hepatic portal hypertension come about? How might this link to HPS? 2. HRS development is primarily described by the underfill theory. What is this and how does it work? 3. What is the involvement of the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system in HRS? 4. What is ascites, how does it develop as a result of portal hypertension and why does it contribute to HRS? What you need to do: Answer each of the questions (in the topics to be covered section, above) in an essay-style format. One/few word answers are not acceptable, they must be fleshed out into a proper paragraph or paragraphs. These question should help you provide an outline describing the causes and consequences of both HPS and HRS in the context of liver failure. This course focuses on physiology, and so your assignment must show physiological understanding of how and why the things you are talking about are taking place. Format: Unlike some other assignments, you do not need to write this so that a lay-person can understand it. This assignment should be completed as an essay addressing the required topics in each case but where appropriate may include flow diagrams, tables, figures etc – NOTE that this assignment must include at least 1 figure, properly formatted and presented. There is no word limit for this assignment, but you are expected to cover the topics appropriately. No one wants to read a 1000 page epic either, so you must write concisely and efficiently. You should have a brief opening introduction and conclusions. When you do include figures make sure you refer to them in the text and explain what the figure is showing – have a figure/table #, title and brief caption separate from the body text. There is no point including a figure just for the sake of it. If you do use figures from other sources make sure you acknowledge the source. Assessment: This assignment will be assessed using a marking rubric provided to you during the semester. You should familiarise yourself with the assessment structure as this will help inform aspects of your approach to completing the work. Referencing: • Correct referencing is an essential component of this assignment. You must, by proper citation, indicate the source of all information included in your assignment. • You can use web references in addition to this • Must include name of article and URL Note: By design, this assignment is not likely to be completed by finding a single source. You will need to scour literature databases to find descriptions of important components and how they interact, and form an idea of how something works by piecing together multiple sources of information. There is no limit to the number of references you should use, but attempting to simply use textbooks or basic science websites will likely result in penalties during marking. REFERENCING EXAMPLES In text citation: Insert the author and year of publication into the text in round brackets. Single source: The early settlers were given very little support (Milne, 1996). Multiple sources: This interpretation is common (Jones, 2002; Ling, 1998; Pratt, 2001, 2005). Full citation: (in bibliography) • Article: Give author, year, article title; name of journal; volume number, issue number (in brackets), and inclusive page numbers using the following font formatting: Example • Author, A. A. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, volume(issue), #–#. • Shaw, M. (1996). Tissue biopsies. Laboratory Techniques, 22(3), 23–28. For more detailed information on referencing See FedUni homepage “students” >Learning and study >assignments and research help Plagiarism The sources of all information used in the writing of your essay must be correctly cited. In scientific writing it is expected that you will read a variety of papers on the topic, then using the ideas taken from these sources, write your essay in your own words. It is not acceptable to copy entire sentences or paragraphs directly from another published work (even if you supply the reference) You should cite the source of each ‘idea’ that you communicate in your essay For more information please visit the following link. Submission: Assignments will be submitted online to turnitin using the link on the course moodle page, and in hard copy with an appropriate cover sheet and marking rubric attached. • The essay will be submitted through Turnitin the University’s online plagiarism detection software. • You should submit a single word document with a file name including your surname in the following format to each link: eg SurnameSCMED2031essay Late Submissions • Late submissions will be penalised by a loss of 10% of the total mark for each day (or part thereof) that the assignment is late. • Extensions will only be granted (with good reason) in advance of the due date.

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