Management Yesterday and Today
1. Management Yesterday and Today
Outline a framework (a map) describing the developments in Western Management Theory over the
last hundred years or more.
Shifts in any theory occur when a researcher identifies a question troubling him or her. Subsequent
research is then directed at finding answers to the research question(s) and ultimately old theory is
discarded and new theory adopted. For example: The Egyptians had a theory that the sun revolved
around the earth. Modern theory is that the earth revolves around the sun. At some stage in between a
question – a research question – arose which we would now describe as challenging whether observed
motion is not absolute but relative to the position of the observer. Such questions trigger research
effort to find evidence so that the questions can be resolved and ultimately old theories are discarded
and new theories established.
1. Scientific Management School has given way to Quantitative Management (Management
2. Scientific Management School has given way to the Human Relations School of Management
3. Human Relations School of Management has given way to Behavioural Science School of
Each member of the team must choose one of these and identify the research questions and the reasons
why and the evidence on which the shift in theory (the paradigm shift) occurred.